# Understanding matrix factorization for recommendation (part 4) - algorithm implementation

**Foreword**: this is the last part of a 4 parts series. Here are parts
1, 2 and 3.
This series is an extended version of a talk I
gave at PyParis 17.

# Algorithm implementation in Python

In the previous part, we have described how to find an approximate solution to the SVD problem using Stochastic Gradient Descent. Here are the main lines of this procedure:

- Randomly initialize all vectors $p_u$ and $q_i$, each of size 10.
- for a given number of times (i.e. number of
**epochs**), repeat:- for all known ratings $r_{ui}$, repeat:
- compute $\frac{\partial f_{ui}}{\partial p_u}$ and $\frac{\partial f_{ui}}{\partial q_i}$ (we just did)
- update $p_u$ and $q_i$ with the following rule: , and . We avoided the multiplicative constant $2$ and merged it into the learning rate $\alpha$.

- for all known ratings $r_{ui}$, repeat:

Without further ado, here is a Python translation of this algorithm:

This fits into less than 10 lines of code. Pretty neat, right?

Once we have run the SGD procedure, all vectors $p_u$ and $q_i$ will be estimated. We can then predict all the ratings we want by simply using the dot product between the vectors $p_u$ and $q_i$:

And that’s it, we’re done :). Want to try it out yourself? I made a small notebook where we can actually run this algorithm on a real dataset. We will use the library surprise, which is a great library for quickly implementing rating prediction algorithms (but I might be slightly biased, as I’m the main dev of surprise!). To use it, you’ll simply need to install it first using pip:

#### How good is our algorithm?

As you can see on the notebook, we obtain an average RMSE of about 0.98. RMSE stands for Root Mean Squared Error, and is computed as follows:

You can think of it as some sort of average error, where big errors are heavily penalized (because they are squared). Having an RMSE of 0 means that all our predictions are perfect. Having an RMSE of 0.5 means that in average, we are approximately 0.5 off with each prediction.

So is 0.98 a good RMSE? It’s actually really not that bad! As shown in the
notebook, a neighborhood algorithm only achieves an RMSE of 1. A more
sophisticated MF
algorithm
(the same as ours, except the ratings are unbiased and we use regularization)
can achieve an RMSE of about 0.96. This algorithm is called ‘*SVD*’ in the
literature, but you know now that it can’t be a real SVD, as there are missing
ratings ;). It’s only (heavily) **inspired** by SVD.

#### Wrapping it up

All right, that’s it! I hope you now understand how beautiful PCA and SVD are, and how we can adapt SVD to a recommendation problem. If you want to play around with surprise, there are plenty of cool stuff in the docs.

If you found this series useful (or not), please let me know in the comments.
Any mistakes are my own, and **any** kind of criticism would be greatly
appreciated!

Thanks to Pierre Poulain for the valuable feedback!

# Resources, going further

I tried to avoid theoretical considerations in this series, and rather give visual, concrete examples to illustrate the use of PCA and SVD. But the theoretical side should not be overlooked, and it is actually very interesting. Here are a few resources that you may want to read if you want to dive further into the various topics covered so far:

- Jeremy Kun’s posts on PCA and SVD are great. The first part of this article was inspired by these two posts.
- Aggarwal’s Textbook on recommender systems is, IMHO, the best RS resource out there. You’ll find many details about the various matrix factorization variants, plus tons of other subjects are covered.
- If you want to know more about the ‘
*SVD*’ algorithm and its possible extensions, check out this paper from the BellKor team (‘*SVD*’ corresponds to equation (5)). They are the guys who won the $1M of the Netflix Prize. - PCA can be used for a lot of fun stuff, not just messing around with creepy faces. Jonathon Shlens’ Tutorial provides great insights on PCA as a diagonalization process, and its link to SVD. Also, this Stanford course notes covers some of the topics we have presented (low-rank approximation, etc.) in a more theory-oriented way.
- For background on linear algebra, Gilbert Strang is your guy: Introduction to LA. His MIT Course is also pure gold.
- And of course, Surprise is a great library for recommender systems (but again, I might be biased ;))